Paleolithic era or stone age dates back to 2.6 million to 10000 years ago in the human history.
Paleo diet or caveman diet is a dietary plan designed after the the food habits of the early humans. 
Paleo diet is also called paleolithic diet, caveman diet, stone age diet, and gather-hunter diet.
Emergence of farming 10000 years ago changed the human diet rapidly by including grains, legumes, dairy products , etc. as staples food items. According to the discordance hypothesis, this later development in human diet mismatched the human genetics and the body’s ability to adapt. Hence, modern diet has major contributing factors for prevalent diseases. 
70% of the contemporary Western diet includes grains, dairies, processed fats, and sugar. Such a diet has adverse side effects on the health and is responsible for many chronic diseases. 
The hunter-gatherer populations of paleolithic era mainly depended on fresh fruits and vegetables, tubers, seeds, roots, eggs,nuts, fish, shellfish, and meat for their energy. These foods were easily available by hunting or gathering. 
A recent study compared Western diet with an East African Paleolithic diet. The researchers found out that paleo diet contained impressive nutritional characteristics with more long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins and less linoleic acid, phytates, and sodium chloride. 
Read on to learn the health benefits of paleo diet, and a complete paleo diet meal plan for the beginners.
Potential Paleo Diet Health Benefits
1. Paleo Diet May Help with Weight Loss.
There have been numerous scientific research on the efficacy of recent fad diets on weight loss plan.
A 2017 study in the Current Gastroenterology Reports investigated the beneficial effects of the paleo diet, intermittent fasting, detoxification diets, and high intensity training for weight loss.
The study concluded that due to low calorie intake both paleo diet and intermittent fasting can lead to weight loss. 
A 2014 Swedish research was conducted among 70 obese postmenopausal women. The researchers found out a paleo diet could significantly reduce total body fat, waist circumference, and triglyceride levels.
Paleolithic diet could produce average 9.0% or 7.9 kg. weight loss at 6 months. 
Related: Drinking Oolong Tea for Weight Loss: Good or Bad?
2. Paleo Diet May Prevent the Risk of Type-2 Diabetes.
Caveman diet is good for managing type-2 diabetes.
A 2009 report in the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology investigated the beneficial effects of paleo diet on 13 type-2 diabetic patients.
The paleo diet had more positive results on the patients than a diabetic diet. The 3 months paleo diet regimen could improve glycemic control and other aspects of the participants. 
The researchers also suggest the paleo diet is good for diabetics who are at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.
Related: 9 Superfoods That May Help You to Manage Diabetes
3. Paleo Diet May Be Good for Heart Health.
According to European Journal of Clinical Nutrition paleo diet has several beneficial effects for cardiovascular health. 
A study was conducted among 9 sedentary persons. A short term paleo diet consumption could significantly reduce blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins. The diet did not affect their body weight. 
In another 2006 animal trial among 24 pigs for 15 months, a paleo diet showed significant improvement in the insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. Paleo diet resulted in weight loss and reduction in the fat deposits of the pigs. 
The researchers suggest for more clinical trial with longer durations in this field. Doing so may help to establish the efficacy and safety of paleo diet for heart health.
Related: 6 Essential Oils for Heart Health and Heart Disease
A Basic Paleo Diet Plan for Beginners
Although paleolithic diet varied in different parts of the ancient world, the diet was essentially whole food-based.
The paleo diet varied depending on the abundance and availability of certain foods. There’s no one right paleo diet meal plan. You can either have a low carb paleo diet with lots of meat, fish, egg, etc. or a plant based high carb diet.
Here’s a basic paleo meal plan but you can it according to your preference:
Foods You Should Eat
Vegetables and herbs — carrots, kale, tomatoes, broccoli, onions, peppers, etc.
Fruits — avocados, apples, blueberries, bananas, pears, strawberries, oranges, etc.
Nuts, seeds and spices — hazelnuts, pumpkin seeds, macadamia nuts, almonds, walnuts, sunflower seeds, and so on.
healthy fats — coconut oil, extra virgin olive oil, avocado oil, etc.
Fish and seafood —lake trout, shrimp, salmon, shellfish, haddock, etc.
Eggs — prefer pastured and free range eggs that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
Meat — lean meat from grass-fed beef and lamb or turkey, chicken, pork, wild game, etc.
Foods You Should Avoid
Grains, legumes, dairy products, processed fats, refined sugar, artificial sweeteners, soft drinks, margarine, trans fats, and vegetable oils.
Paleo Diet Menu for a Day
Here’s what a paleo diet may look like:
Breakfast. Cantaloupe and broiled salmon Or vegetables fried in olive oil and eggs. A piece of orange.
Lunch. Broiled lean pork Or chicken salad with tomatoes, carrot, cucumber, walnuts and lemon juice.
Dinner. Salad, Lean beef roast, steamed broccoli as the main course and in dessert strawberries.
Snacks. Fruits, celery sticks, carrots, etc.
Drinks: it is a must to drink sufficient water throughout the day. Tea or coffee may may be consumed in limited amount.
Exercise: light physical exercise and being active go hand in hand with paleo diet regimen.
Disadvantages and Precautions of Paleo Diet
A potential disadvantage of paleo diet is that it lacks in calcium and vitamin D.
Both these nutrients are essential for preventing osteoporosis and overall bone health.
In case you have calcium deficiency in the body, consult a doctor before you switch to paleo diet.
Paleo diet may increase the consumption of saturated fats and protein in the form of animal derived foods. It may increase the chances of heart diseases and cancer. 
Paleo diet is a return to the eating habits of our ancestors million years ago. Paleo diet is a balanced combination of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs, fish, and seafoods.
Recent scientific studies support the beneficial effects of paleo diet for human health — preventing the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, waist circumference, metabolic syndrome, acne vulgaris, myopia eye health complications, and even cancer.
Read More: Mediterranean Diet: Beginner’s Guide for a Healthy Life